John bimson redating the exodus

Position (a) is the position adopted by scholars including the British Egyptologist K. Kitchen and a large body of Israeli archaeologists.

Obviously the variety of models means that evidence used to support the Bible in one model might also be used against the historicity of the Bible in another model.

In the prophetic books it is still the case that most scholars stress the existence of multiple layers in the text.

It is necessary, for instance, to understand the narrative import of the phrase 'the land had rest N years' (Judges , , etc.) before it is possible to seek a correlation between the text and externally recorded history.

Most scholarship takes a developmental or evolutionary view of Israelite religion, that is, it seeks to derive OT religion from some earlier form of religion.

There is debate about the chronological setting of every figure from King Solomon (ca. These debates can be seen as hinging on one's model for the Exodus, an event widely denied by modern scholars.

Of many alternatives in the market there are three models which broadly speaking are positive about the historicity of the Bible's narrative of the exodus from Egypt and conquest of Canaan. The models are: (a) the Israelites left Egypt and entered the promised land during the 13th century BC.

This tendency is still strong, though it has weakened in some circles due to more recent literary approaches which have either argued for compositional unity or (more often) stressed the unknowability of literary stages prior to the text we have today.

However, unifying literary approaches need to be used with care because sometimes their proponents are even more negative about the historicity of the Bible than those stressing the disunity of the text.In all historical questions care must be taken not to read too much into the OT text.The historical books of the OT are also literature with themes, emphases, and literary conventions.Thus a scholar might see the exclusive worship of Yahweh as having developed from an earlier time when worship of other deities was allowed, or might seek to pinpoint the time at which belief in only one God developed.It is common also to believe that at a certain time Yahweh was held to have a female consort, Asherah, and that this belief was later dropped.However, the view that the biblical data must be seen as fitting somewhere on a scale of development is not necessary, and often stems from a view that biblical religion is explicable without recourse to divine revelation.

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