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Turkmenistan has never had an election that offered its citizens any semblance of choice.Niyazov ran for president unopposed in 1992, winning an implausible 99.5 percent of the vote.These moves effectively cut the country off from outside information and reduced Moscow’s ability to influence Turkmen culture and information space.
During Niyazov’s time in office, all dissent was brutally suppressed and pushed underground.
The media remained under tight state control, freedom of movement restricted, and access to the outside world highly constrained.
Niyazov, Turkmenistan’s first president, found himself running an independent country by chance, not design. Petersburg, then Leningrad, he came to power in 1985 when then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev installed him as first secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic with a mandate to curb corruption there.
Niyazov, however, was a conservative Soviet official, and Turkmenistan in the late 1980s was a conservative place.
Turkmen voted overwhelmingly in a March 1991 Soviet Union–wide referendum to preserve the union.
In keeping with that conservativism, Niyazov remained silent throughout the August 1991 coup when hardliners attempted to overthrow Gorbachev and save the Soviet Union.
The prospect of a prolonged environment of low hydrocarbon prices, the country’s outstanding debt to China, and competition from other global gas producers make Turkmenistan’s economy increasingly troubled.
Due to fractious relations with Moscow and the desire of the Turkmen government to keep its citizens isolated from the outside world, migrant labor opportunities in Russia have been closed off.
There have been isolated instances of socioeconomic protest in recent years, which is unusual for a population living under such repression and in an information vacuum.
The Turkmen model appears far more fragile than the record of the first twenty-five years of independence might lead one to believe.
That has denied struggling Turkmen the escape valve other Central Asians have relied on to feed their families and remain above the poverty line.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating